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Personality Disorders and Types

Personality disorders refer to an individual way of feeling, thinking and acting. That drift from the expectation of one’s culture and social norms. A personality disorder is an umbrella word, for mental illnesses that require psychological intervention.

For instance, Jackson tends to be bashful”; “Christabel likes to be toxic”; “Esther is consistently chary of others”; John appears to be tactful, and Mike is upset easily over slight things”; “Agatha is outgoing”.

We tend to point out people as behaving in a single way in many distinct situations. For example, like Jackson, many of us are bashful in the company of people we don’t know, but won’t be bashful around our family and friends. However, a truly bashful person is bashful even in the company of people he or she has known for some time. Bashfulness is the personal part of personality.

Have you been questioned why you are so dramatic all the time or why you no longer come early to class? These questions are asked when your personality is known or changed. Most times people asked you why you frowned on yourself because your face is known to be bright all day.

Now let us talk about personality disorder

What if a person or a friend’s characteristics and reasoning create significant distress for oneself or others? Also, what if the person is unable to change the way he relates to the world and is unhappy? We might consider this person to have a personality disorder. However, the DSM IV-TR definition account that these personality characteristics are inflexible and maladaptive and create significant functional impairment or subjective distress.

In addition, personality disorders are chronic, they are not seasonal but begin in childhood and continue throughout adulthood. Because this disorder affects personality, these chronic disorders permeate every aspect of a person’s life.

Types of personality disorder

Personality disorders are grouped into clusters;

  • Cluster A- odd or Eccentric Disorders

Paranoid personality disorder

Schizoid personality disorder

Schizotypal personality disorder

  • Cluster B- Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic disorder

Antisocial personality disorder

Borderline personality disorder

Histrionic personality disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder

  • Cluster C- Anxious or fearful Disorders

Avoidant personality disorder

Dependent personality disorder

Obsessive personality disorder

What is a paranoid personality disorder?

People with paranoid personality disorder are extremely mistrustful and suspicious of others without vindication or grounds. Thus, they presume other people are out to harm them, betray or stratagem them; hence, they tend not to divulge to others.

Despite that, it is necessary to be a little cautious of other people and their motives. Being too suspicious can impede making friends, working with others, and, in general getting through daily interactions in an effective way.

If you have close friends suffering from a paranoid personality disorder? Don’t panic, treatment for this psychological disorder mainly focuses on psychotherapy. Booking a therapy session can make you or your loved one grow skills for building empathy and trust.

Schizoid personality disorder

This is a personality disorder presenting an extensive pattern of detachment from communal relationships and a cramped range of expression of emotion or feeling. Staying with someone who is a “loner” or a friend who would take an unaccompanied walk over an invitation to a party.  As well an individual who goes to class alone sits alone, reads alone, and leaves alone can be so tiring. Now with the level of isolation, you would understand what these persons are going through and figure out how you could be of help to them.

According to (Kalus, Bernsterin,& Siever, 1995) people with this personality disorder show a pattern of detachment from social relationships and a limited range of emotions in interpersonal situations. They seem unapproachable, unfriendly, and indifferent. Are you experiencing schizoid disorder? Going for therapy, and prescribed medication such as antidepressants can help. Talk therapy (psychotherapy) can be helpful.

Schizotypal personality disorder

This type of personality disorder entails prevalent way of interpersonal deficits. Involves drastic discomfort and also, decreased strength for close relationships as well as, perceptual and cognitive deformation and idiosyncrasy of behaviour.

They are considered odd and bizarre because of how they relate to other people, behave, think, and dress.  Therefore, a combination of medication and psychotherapy would help in the treatment of schizotypal personality disorder.

Cluster B personality disorder

Individuals, suffering from these disorders are constantly dramatic and eccentric in their behaviour, and one of them is anti-social behaviour. They are the most dramatic of individuals and are known for having a history of default obeying social norms.

Completely lacking conscience and empathy, they do want they want to do without any remorse. Involve in activities that we see unacceptable, such as stealing from family and friends, and rape triggered by their selfish reasons.

Borderline personality disorder

Individuals suffering from this disorder are unable to stay in relationships. Always experiencing feelings of emptiness, and this could lead to suicidal behaviour-related cases. Therefore, knowing about this and caring for this type of person can help to prolong their lives and safety.

 Histrionic personality disorder:

This is where all the dramatic fall in, they show excessive, dramatic, sexually and provocative to gain attention, you can as well say that they are attention seekers.

Narcissistic personality disorder:

Are you constantly believing that you are more special to others, always fantasying about power, attractiveness and success? you may be having a narcissistic personality disorder.

Cluster C personality disorder:

These personality disorders are prone to anxiety, fear or thinking behaviour. This personality disorder includes;

The avoidant personality-  The avoidant personality people are too sensitive to rejection, and fearful of disappointment and approval.

 Dependent personality disorder –They display clingy behaviour towards others, tolerance of abusive treatment and lack of self-confidence.

Obsessive personality disorder- They display extremely perfectionism, dealing with this kind of person can be so tiring.

Furthermore, living with an obsessive-compulsive personality partner can constantly bring issues between the two partners. Like constant questioning of one’s efforts. For example, a husband may ask his wife, if she had washed the dishes, even after seeing that the plates or dishes were washed.

If to see a doctor

Having any signs or symptoms of a personality disorder see your primary health care or a doctor, booking a therapist session will help to manage personality disorders it could get worse and affect your daily life if left untreated. Also, it is important to know that the causes which could be from your genes or environment.

Treatment of Personality Disorders

In the treatment of Personality Disorders, there are types of psychotherapy treatment that can be used in the treatment of personality disorders by the therapist. such as;

  • Cognitive Therapy
  • Group Therapy
  • Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic therapy
  • Family-focused therapy
  • Dialectical therapy


  1. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Fifth Edition(DSM-5). American Psychiatric Association. (2013)

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